Chris' Published Papers and Reports

All of his papers and major reports in one place!

The World Bank Group considers that no country, community, or economy can achieve its potential or meet the challenges of the 21st century without the full and equal participation of women and men, girls and boys. It is committed to closing gaps between males and females globally for lasting impact in tackling poverty and driving sustainable economic growth that benefits all.

Thirty-five percent of women worldwide have experienced either non-partner sexual violence or physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) (WHO 2013), both manifestations of Gender-Based Violence (GBV). Major civil works can exacerbate the risk of GBV in both public and private spaces by a range of perpetrators in a number of ways.

This 'Good Practice Note' provides guidance on how to address the increased risk of GBV which is induced through civil works projects. It draws heavily on the pioneering work that we did in the Pacific Islands from 2014 under our aviation program. It sets out the activities that projects must do to ensure that the risks are minimized, and that appropriate mechanisms are in place to address any incidents that may arise.

Paper to 2018 Transportation Research Board Conference.

Air transportation is vital for the Pacific Island Countries (PICs), connecting remote, scattered and small islands over large distances across the Pacific Ocean. Many of the PICs are developing countries or small island states, which lack the necessary funds to install and maintain modern radar-based air traffic surveillance systems. Because potential ground-based radar locations are limited and there is a lack of funds to install radar, air traffic surveillance is limited to voice based procedural control. As part of a major regional program to improve PIC aviation safety and security, the World Bank is financing the installation of ADS-B systems, which are satellite based surveillance technology. The use of ADS-B—which costs a fraction of traditional radar systems—allows developing and emerging countries to dramatically improve the efficiency and effectiveness of air traffic surveillance. This paper outlines how ADS-B based air traffic surveillance was implemented in five PICs. It explains what ground technology was installed, and what avionics upgrades were necessary in aircraft. It also touches on the regulatory aspects. The model used here is readily replicable to other developing and emerging countries.

Paper to 2018 Transportation Research Board Conference.

The aviation sector provides essential national, regional and international connectivity within the Pacific Island Countries, and onwards to Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere. Ensuring that appropriate safety and security levels are met is a challenge in two areas: (i) the specialized nature of aviation places a high burden on small island states with limited human resources; and, (ii) ensuring sufficient funding for safety and security oversight and investments. This paper describes how a regional ‘Safety and Security Levy’ was implemented in five countries to improve safety and security oversight and operations. The levy is collected by airlines and allocated using an agreed disbursement framework between the regulator and the airport operator. The paper describes in detail the rationale for the regional levy, the mechanism by which it is collected, and the approach for disbursement. It has been found to be very effective and can be replicated in other jurisdictions facing similar challenges. 

The road sector represents a significant asset to any country – both in terms of the physical cost to build it, and the social and economic benefits that it facilitates. Internationally accepted good practice is that the road asset should be appropriately managed through formal asset management techniques such as those laid out under the ISO55000 standard, the International Infrastructure Management Manual, or similar guidelines   While these standards and guidelines all permit the inclusion of climate change impacts into the asset management practices, there is little specific guidance on how to do so with the result being that many road authorities are still working in a business-as-usual mode.


Climate change, for whatever the cause, has the potential to be a serious disruptor to business-as-usual thinking for many of the most vulnerable countries in the world. The impacts of climate change are two-fold, with medium-long term changes in the average indicators (rainfall, temperature etc.) along with an increase in the occurrence of shock events such as large floods. With the past not being a good indicator of the future with regard to climate change, many of the asset management practices need to be refined to ready road authorities in advance of; during; and after climate change events.


This report describes asset management practices should be modified to prepare a road authority for climate change – ranging from modifications of high level policy statements; through to the maintenance of key assets. The key finding is that climate change is best integrated to asset management by being prepared for climate events, rather than through response plans. Not all of the recommended changes are applicable to all road authorities, and for some of the most vulnerable road networks it may be necessary to go beyond the level of effort recommended. However, application of the principles advocated here will ensure road authorities are prepared to address the challenges of climate change in managing their infrastructure.

Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are a group of countries located across the world in the Caribbean, Pacific, Africa, and Indian Ocean regions. They are all small in size, sparsely populated and geographically isolated, and their small economies are typically based on tourism, fisheries, agriculture, and small-scale manufacturing activities.

SIDS are among the most exposed and vulnerable countries to natural disasters in the world, and climate change is expected to exacerbate future risks, threatening development progress. Because of their location, small size, and topography, SIDS are exposed to severe hazards, including cyclones, extreme winds, storms, earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. Compared to other countries, SIDS also suffer very high economic losses when extreme events strike, with average annual losses ranging between 1 and 10 percent of gross domestic product (Figure 1). Climate change will not only exacerbate disaster risks, but also have long-term impacts such as sea level rise, changes in rainfall patterns, and more extreme temperatures, which also require adapted management.

This report describes issues challenging SIDS, and how they can be addressed through asset management.

Paper to the 2017 Transportation Research Board Conference.


Describes the $221 million World Bank financed 'Pacific Aviation Investment Program' improving aviation infrastructure and oversight in Kiribati, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu.

Paper to the 2017 Transportation Research Board Conference. 


Describes work on ensuring that transportation designs cater for mobility impaired people.

This Note provides guidance on identifying, assessing and managing the risks of adverse social and environmental impacts that are associated with the temporary influx of labor resulting from Banksupported projects. The Note contains guiding principles and recommendations to be considered as part of the design and implementation of projects with civil works that require labor from outside the project’s area of influence. This Note does not introduce new requirements, but rather seeks to provide concrete guidance on how to approach temporary labor influx within the environmental and social assessment process.

Paper to the 14th International Conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Persons With Disability.

Describes a review done of transport infrastructure provisions in Pacific Island countries for persons with impaired mobility in land transport, maritime and aviation sectors.

Paper to the 9th International Conference on Managing Pavements.

The Kingdom of Tonga is a small island country in the South Pacific, located some 1,500 km north-east of New Zealand. The road network, approximately 870 km consisting of about 640 km of public roads, is almost exclusively low volume roads, with only a few urban roads in the capital Nuku’alofa carrying over 1,000 vehicles per day. Over 90 % of the public roads are sealed. Due to a variety of structural and fiscal issues, road maintenance - both routine and periodic - effectively halted in the late 2000’s. The Ministry of Works, nominally responsible for the maintenance of the road network, did not have the resources or equipment to maintain the roads so for about a decade there was effectively no routine or periodic maintenance.

In 2010 the Government of Australia provided funds to Tonga through the World Bank with the objective of establishing a routine and periodic maintenance program, with a secondary objective of stimulating the economy by creating employment through road works. This paper describes the success story of how Tonga went from having no regular road maintenance, indeed, not even contractors to undertake road maintenance, to having a competitive road maintenance industry undertaking routine and periodic maintenance across the country. 

Knowledge about men and women’s transportation needs and patterns cannot be taken for granted. In many transportation projects in developing countries, the relevant social and cultural context of gender differences is not analyzed. Without such knowledge, transport interventions meant to cater to both men and women’s transport burdens cannot be tailored. To capture evidence of the challenges and needs of project road beneficiaries, and women in particular, social benefit surveys that included focus group consultations were piloted in the context of two road rehabilitation projects in the Pacific Island region. The surveys which took place in 2011-2012 covered nine villages with 209 households from Kiribati and ten villages with 360 households from Timor Leste. The results provided examples of constraints affecting the transport access, mobility and safety needs of men and women as well as missed opportunities for improvement. The findings highlighted the challenges and concerns of the intended project beneficiaries regarding road use. No significant differences between men and women were found in relation to the appreciation of road conditions. No gender link was shown in relation to perceived road condition and increased employment opportunities or agricultural productivity. However, there were gender differences in relation to use of modes of transport, personal safety issues and accessing services such as health and education. This review demonstrates the critical importance of collecting gender-disaggregated data for planning and implementing road transport projects, and ensuring that these data are used to adapt project investments to maximize opportunities for both men and women. 

Natural Resources Forum

Special Issue: Small Island Developing States

Volume 38Issue 1pages 58–66February 2014

The growing demand for construction materials in South Tarawa, a remote atoll in the South Pacific, provides an example of the environmental and social challenges associated with the use of non-renewable resources in the context of small island countries threatened by coastal erosion and climate change. In many small Pacific island countries, the availability of construction materials is limited, with the majority mined from beaches and coastal reefs in an unsustainable manner.

Growing demand for construction aggregates is resulting in more widespread sand mining by communities along vulnerable sections of exposed beach and reefs. This has serious consequences for coastal erosion and impacts on reef ecosystem processes, consequences that cannot be easily managed. Construction materials are also in high demand for infrastructure projects which are financed in part with support from international development agencies and donors. This paper reviews the various challenges and risks that aggregate mining poses to reefs, fish, and the coastal health of South Tarawa and argues that the long term consequences from ad hoc beach/reef mining over large areas are likely to be far greater than the impacts associated with environmentally sustainable, organized extraction. The paper concludes with policy recommendations that are also relevant for neighbouring island countries facing similar challenges.

Paper summarizing the procurement arrangements made for the Pacific Aviation Investment Project which used a novel regional project management unit approach.

Paper to 2014 SATC Conference on evaluation of the Roadroid roughness meter.

Road user charging is used by governments and road agencies for two main reasons: (i) revenue generation to finance infrastructure and maintenance or other priorities, and (ii) demand management in order to curb congestion, and improve the environment. As budgets for highway agencies around the world have come under pressure at the same time as traffic demand is increasing and clogging up more city street space, more and more countries are looking at the option of charging road users to help address their current challenges.

This paper was prepared as a discussion document to summarize some of the recent experiences with Road User Charging (RUC) and to give some preliminary guidance to road agencies and governments considering adopting RUC. The main target audience is therefore the officials and policy makers involved in the management and financing of road infrastructure in client countries. The secondary audience is Bank staff involved in transport policy dialogue and other interested stakeholders. The paper should be read in conjunction with the recent Transport Note ‘Planning and Implementation of Road Use Charging’.

Accessibility of transport is not always a priority in transport planning and implementation. There can be barriers in the physical environment and delivery of services that render transport inaccessible. The principles of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CPRD) brings new momentum to ensuring accessibility in the delivery of transport infrastructure and services. This note summarizes the analysis done of the accessibility features of recent transport projects in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region. It seeks to highlight good practice in national laws, policies and project implementation to improve the welfare of transport users across projects. The overarching objective is to suggest how to improve the implementation of accessibility features in transport projects for people with disabilities and people with limited mobility.

Paper to the 5th International Congress on Sustainability of Road Infrastructure.

Of some 33.8 million km. of classified roads that girdle the globe, nearly all unsealed roads and an estimated 85% of paved roads are low-volume roads (LVRs) with ADT of less than 1000 vehicles/day. Rural LVRs have a critical role in economic growth and poverty reduction, and a prominent function in emergency preparedness, disaster relief and rural job creation. This paper discuses the meaning of sustainability and its more practical subset--livability, in relation to rural roads and how the application of context sensitive solutions could help achieve a better balance among the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainability.

Presented at the 2011 Conference on Pavement Management Systems.

Computer based pavement management systems (PMS) have been implemented by many road agencies to assist with developing long term works programmes and predicting future network conditions. The success of such systems in achieving their stated aim has varied: reports after initial implementation are often positive, but the long term success is less well reported and often varied and mixed. Typically, in the long term, a gap develops between the expectations of ‘practitioners’ and senior managers in road agencies, and the objectives and work of the technical specialists responsible for managing the PMS.

The paper identifies key issues which affect the long term success of PMS implementation. The reflections are based on the authors’ experience in both the developed and developing world and draw on real examples and case studies. The paper concludes with recommendations as to how road agencies should manage PMS use and suggests approaches which maximise the potential for successful PMS uptake. A number of areas are explored including: issues around understanding outputs from PMS systems; the level of effort, resource and investment required for the use of a PMS; the relevance of PMS decisions to the overall budgeting outcome; the level of effort into data collection for PMS analyses; and the overall business context. The main principle that is established is that managers of PMS initiatives need to strive constantly to ensure that focus remains on the broad context and culture of the road administration, and that all work must be directed to this broader focus.

The accompanying presentation is available for download here.

Presented at 2011 TRB Low Volume Roads Conference. In late 2008, the Republic of Armenia requested World Bank assistance to help mitigate the local impact of the global financial crisis. This paper describes how the Lifeline Road Improvement Project (LRIP) in Armenia was prepared and implemented as a Rapid Response Stimulus Package to respond to the crisis. The project was prepared in just six weeks. This project helped rehabilitate over 150 km of low-volume rural roads and generated about 15,000 person-months of employment over an eight- month period from May to December 2009. The World Bank’s Operational Policy 8.0 ‘Rapid Response to Crises and Emergencies’ was applied to the design and implementation of this project. This operational policy is invoked when there are major adverse economic and social impacts resulting from natural disasters or man-made crises and triggers the use of a set of streamlined procedures for rapid project preparation and implementation. The lessons learned from the design and implementation of this stimulus package offer useful guidance for preparing rapid response infrastructure programs and projects under similar conditions and circumstances in other countries. The accompanying presentation is here.

The 'official' report noting the finding of a new species/genus bug on the Hubei Yiba Highway Project - named after Chris Bennett.

Road use charging is used by agencies for activities ranging from revenue collection, through demand and environmental management. It is applied on individual road segments, such as an expressway, or over geographic areas, such as zones in a city or even an entire country. When a government is considering implementing a road use charging system, it needs to consider four broad issues: (i) the technology to adopt; (ii) how it will be operated; (iii) how compliance will be enforced; and, (iv) the social impact of the system. This transport note addresses each of these four issues, and presents guidelines towards implementing a successful road use charging scheme.

The successful implementation of a computerized road management system (RMS) depends on the interaction of three fundamental components: Processes, People and Technology. If any of these components are lacking, the system will not be successful. The best technology in the world will ultimately fail if implemented in an environment where there are no people to run it, or where the processes are not in place to utilize it.

In 2005, the World Bank, funded by TRISP, hired consultants to conduct interviews in 21 different road agencies in 16 countries to gauge their experiences in implementing RMS. A standard questionnaire was completed for each agency. The agencies were chosen to represent a cross-section of experience in different continents. National road agencies were primarily chosen, although some large provincial and state agencies were also interviewed.

What is apparent from the study is that agencies that are successful in their implementations have built strong foundations in all of the fundamental components over a number of years. First and foremost, they have developed an ‘asset management mindset’, that is, they explicitly and conscientiously implement policies that are geared towards managing their highway infrastructure as an asset whose value must be maintained and improved. Their executives and management promote asset management principles in order to ensure that funding and budget are allocated to appropriate areas. They are explicitly committed to the RMS, in the sense that it is built into their processes and procedures. They ensure that sufficient budget is available for data collection, for upgrades and maintenance of the systems, and for staff training and progression.

This paper was presented at the 2008 International Conference on Pavement Management in Calgary.

Different types of data are required for managing the road infrastructure. Inventory data describe the physical elements of a road system. Condition data describe the condition of elements that can be expected to change over time. There are a wide range of technologies available to the road manager for measuring attributes of the road network. The challenge is to select the appropriate equipment, given local conditions and the way in which the data are expected to be used. Too often, agencies have adopted data collection technologies which are not sustainable and this has compromised the quality or usefulness of their pavement management system (PMS). This paper presents basic principles for data collection which should be considered in a PMS, highlights key technologies, and presents a method by which an agency can select the most appropriate technology given their specific requirements.

This paper was presented at the 2008 International Conference on Pavement Management in Calgary.

Presented at the PIARC 6th Symposium on Pavement Surface Characteristics. 

For over 20 years the World Bank has supported clients in developing countries to procure pavement condition monitoring equipment and/or services.  The success of these projects has been mixed. While some countries have successfully institutionalized sustainable data collection, too many have failed either due to the adoption of overly complex equipment or inadequate institutional capacity.

As a result of this, the Bank has put forth a number of key concepts in an endeavour to ensure appropriate and sustainable pavement condition data collection. These include concepts such as the \\\'Information Quality Level\\\', which indicates the appropriate level of data detail given the intended purpose, to developing generic specifications for the procurement of data collection equipment and services.

The paper presents some of the experiences of the Bank in these different projects, highlighting the key lessons learned and how agencies can better ensure sustainable and appropriate data collection.

The presentation which accompanies the paper can be downloaded here.

When properly designed and implemented, involuntary resettlement on highway projects can be used to improve overall living conditions and alleviate poverty for those affected by the project.  

This technical note describes how this was achieved on the Shiyan-Manchuangan Expressway project in Hubei China. By focusing on sustainable land development, better housing standards and infrastructure access, and centralized resettlement communities, the project has improved living standards and raised incomes for most affected residents. Public participation and continuous dialogue with affected parties throughout the project helped address residents’ concerns and contributed to the positive outcome. These practices can be applied elsewhere to help achieve satisfactory resettlement outcomes.

Paper presented at 2007 TRB Conference on making road management systems successful.

Short World Bank paper on activities combatting HIV/AIDS in transport projects. The focus is on the China projects and what has worked. There is an accompanying presentation filed in the presentations folder.

Report prepared for the World Bank describing road, bridge and traffic data collection technologies. Also covers principles of data collection. The associated web site for obtaining further data is

As in many other parts of the economy, China’s transport infrastructure has been undergoing rapid development in recent years. All sectors of transport—roads, urban, railways, air, inland waterways, ports and logistics—have seen major investments to meet the growing demands for transport services. This has resulted in a transformation of China towards world class transport infrastructure in all sectors.

This report presents a summary of the current state of transport in the seven sectors above, together with an outline of some of the energy and climate change issues across the transport sector as a whole. It catalogs many of China’s achievements, while also identifying issues that need to be addressed for China to ensure that transport infrastructure does not act as a bottleneck on development.

This report does not give a full treatment of the sector issues but a summary of the key statistics and challenges with the aim of providing a brief overview. It is hoped that this will be part of a wider platform for policy dialog between the Bank and the Government of China so that the World Bank can continue to assist China meet its development goals.

Prepared for the World Bank's EAP Innovation Fund, this report describes how Goolge Earth can be used for project preparation and supervision. It covers (i) data collection options, and (ii) the Google Earth application. With regard to data collection, it covers a range of technologies from PDAs through to GPS cameras. Since this report was written Google Picassa software has been released which is the easiest way to create a Google Earth file from georeferenced digital photos.

Technical note to provide guidance for decision makers, engineers and administrators on selecting the most appropriate surface for unsealed road given the prevailing conditions

Technical note describing the different factors associated with 'successful' RMS implementations. It is a summary of the report Success Factors for Road Management Systems

Technical note is to give a general view of the currently available survey technologies applied to pavements, bridges and traffic. This includes an assessment of the applicability of these technologies in developing countries. Summary of the report Data Collection Technologies for Road Management.

Presentation discussing how to successfully implement a road management system

5th International PMS Conference. Issues and techniques for creating homogeneous sections

Powerpoint presentation on how one implements a pavement management system with predictive capabilities

Article from Transearch on how rut depth measurements from different instruments were harmonised

Report on establishing a spatial network in a GIS from collecting the raw data through processing and creating a topologically correct network

Comprehensive book on the modelling of road user and environmental effects. It covers all aspects from vehcile operating costs to emissins. The models presented here formed the basis for the modelling in HDM-4, although the software does not fully implement the models.

User's guide for HDM-4 information management system. A relational database for storing and managing road data

Report on how to create a spatial network, from collecting basic data through manipulating it in a GIS.

How data from profilometers with different numbers of sensors can be harmonised. Provides a theoretical analysis of the systematic bias that arises with different profilometers and then uses software to predict the implications of different sensor configurations on systematic bias and other errors.

The phase 2 report which built on the original work can be found here.  The software used for the analysis is also available for download.

Asia Roads Conference. The use of ROMDAS for collecting pavement condition data

Road Profiler User's Group. Describes how transverse reference profiles were established in NZ for pavement deterioration model calibration

Issues and strategy for using spatial measurements on NZ State Highways

Guide to the use of the CDS software which uses cumulative deviations for sectioning road data

Paper on how NZ's national PMS was implemented.

Book by Chris Bennett on a solo bike ride from California to Maine.

5th International PMS Conference. Description of the project which implemented a PMS for NZ

Authored by Chris Bennett and Bill Paterson, the HDM-4 Series Volume 5 describes how to calibrate HDM-4. The report addresses a range of issues from Information Quality through calibrating pavement deterioration and road user effects.

Investigation of the viability of using statistical techniques to assess road data quality

A postgraduate course at the University of Auckland aimed at covering the essentials of infrastructure management.

A postgraduate course at the University of Auckland aimed at covering the essentials of infrastructure management.

A postgraduate course at the University of Auckland aimed at covering the essentials of infrastructure management.

A postgraduate course at the University of Auckland aimed at covering the essentials of infrastructure management.

A postgraduate course at the University of Auckland aimed at covering the essentials of infrastructure management.

3rd International PMS Conference. How the ROMDAS Transverse Profile Logger was tested to confirm its measurements

REAAA Conference. What changes were required to NZ's PEM manual in light of the ISOHDM project

IRF Conference. How one collects key data for feasibility studies

ARRB Journal. The modelling of traffic congestion effects on fuel

ARRB Journal. Implications of sampling on rut depth calculations

TRB Conference. The calibration of response-type roughness meters

TRB Conference. Paper showing how HDM can be used to establish design standards for new pavements

Asia Roads Conference. Describes issues associated with road asset management

A report on establishing VOC and pavement deterioration relationships for India. Contains a detailed review of the India VOC and PDWE research and how this work was used to establish models for use in the dTIMS PMS application.

ARRB Journal. Paper evaluating applicability of speed environment approach to NZ

TRB Conference. Development of models to predict deceleration behaviour

Chris Bennett's PhD dissertation on developing a model for predicting speeds on two-lane highways.

Short note on modified version of HDM-III for Thailand

Arrb Conference. The implications of speed measurement errors in speed surveys

Comparison of calibrations between three roughness measurement vehicles in New Zealand

Paper on differences in roughness measurements between two different roughness vehicles

How HDM-III was modified and used for a study in Myanmar. Covers VOC and PDWE calibration as well as roughness measurements and application of HDM

Calibration and application of HDM-III for a feasibility study in Nepal.

How HDM-III was modified and calibrated to Myanmar for the Comprehensive Transport Study.

Chris Bennett's MEng dissertation on developing a model for predicting vehicle operating costs.