General

General reports on road user effects.

2019 - World Bank - HDM-4 Road User Costs Model
 984 Downloads
 1.4 MB
 04-11-2007

The HDM-4 Road User Costs Model (HDM-4 RUC) is an Excel based model designed to compute, for different vehicle types and road conditions, vehicle speeds, fuel consumption, vehicle operating costs, passenger time costs, emission and accident costs based on the Highway Development and Management Model (HDM-4) relationships. The model computes unit road user costs, performs sensitivity analysis, computes network road user costs and performs a simplified economic evaluation of a road project. The current version of HDM-4 RUC (Version 5.0) computes the vehicle operating costs and speeds, function of roughness, cubic polynomials that can be used together with the RED and RONET models.

2016 - Australia - VOC Model Parameters New!
 3 Downloads
 2.27 MB
 21-07-2020

Report on quantifying the input parameters, and indexes, for updating vehicle operating costs.

This paper presents a summary of findings on the effect of pavement roughness [international roughness index (IRI)] and texture [mean profile depth (MPD)] on vehicle operating costs. The most important cost affected by roughness was fuel consumption, followed by repair and maintenance, then tire wear. An increase in IRI of 1 m/km (63.4 in./mi) increased fuel consumption of passenger cars by 2% to 3%, regardless of speed. For heavy trucks, this increase was 1% to 2% at 70 mph and 2% to 3% at 35 mph. Surface texture and pavement type had no effect on fuel consumption for vehicle classes except heavy trucks. An increase in MPD of 1 mm (0.039 in.) increased fuel consumption by 1.5% at 55 mph and 2% at 35 mph. The effect of pavement type on fuel consumption was statistically not significant for all light vehicles and was statistically significant for heavy trucks only at 35 mph in summer conditions (308C). No data were available for heavy trucks in winter. For repair and maintenance, there was no effect of roughness up to an IRI of 3 m/km (190 in./mi). Beyond this range, an increase in IRI up to 4 m/km (254 in./mi) increased repair and maintenance costs by 10% for passenger cars and heavy trucks. At an IRI of 5 m/km (317 in./mi), the increase was up to 40% for passenger cars and 50% for heavy trucks. An increase in IRI of 1 m/km (63.4 in./ mi) increased tire wear of passenger cars and heavy trucks by 1% at 55 mph.

Measurement of pavement permanent deformation is critical to highway agencies for both pavement design and rehabilitation. Since the AASHO Road Test in the late 1950s and early 1960s, field rut condition is monitored by agencies on a regular basis. Over the decades, rut depth has been the solely dominating pavement permanent deformation indicator extensively used, though it faces many criticisms for being incomplete to characterize rut. The premature data collection technology, lack of uniform practice standard, and unrealistic expectations have hindered the improvement of rut measurement.


Recently, two AASHTO draft standard documents PP70-10 and PP69-10 are published specifying data requirements and procedures for deriving new technical parameters, respectively. It is envisioned that the mature application of the 1 mm 3D pavement surface data collected by PaveVision3D Ultra system in companion with the new standards poses a significant opportunity to change the landscape of current rut measurement practice.

This research described in the thesis accomplishes the following tasks to provide substantial insights into the new rut measurement requirements. First, thirteen technical parameters covering multiple aspects of pavement ruts are derived based on PP69-10. The rut depth measures documented in PP69-10 are verified with ground truth values. Second, a thorough study of these rut attributes is conducted with 8,960 transverse profiles collected from National Highway Systems (NHS) in Arkansas. The interrelationships among different technical parameters are explored, and inferences regarding pavement performance are developed. Third, a comprehensive hierarchical system is constructed for overall permanent deformation evaluation. The standardized index provided by the proposed system can help highway agencies manage pavement performance in a more comprehensive and reasonable manner. Fourth, the impact of vehicle wandering on the accuracy of rut measurements is assessed. A methodology is developed and verified to reduce the adverse effect of unknown lane locations.

Overall, this thesis demonstrates findings of a timely study in rut measurement and characterization based on the latest standard protocols and data collection technology. The research provides insights and useful supplements to both practitioners and researchers in the transition to apply the most advanced 1 mm 3D laser imaging technology to comprehensive pavement survey.

The economic prosperity of a country is strongly associated with the relative size and physical condition of its road network, which is the most important component of its transportation infrastructure. The rate at which a country’s economy grows is very closely linked to the rate at which the transport sector grows. In the process of economic analysis of highways, the road user cost plays a significant role. Large research has been carried out in India, from half century. Amongst the Road User Cost (RUC) models, Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC) models are the major component and are analytically complex in nature. The determination of VOC is a key element in evaluating the highway projects. The updation of VOC models are required for highway project appraisals, particularly for road maintenance. The determination of VOC is complicated and time consuming, as lots of data collection is required. With time, these VOC models become outdated. In the current paper, another method, Whole price index was used to update the vehicle operating cost. This method is very simple, easy and time saving. This updated VOC models can be used by various Highway engineers to evaluate the road projects on monetary basis.

2013 - India - Road User Cost Updating
 2845 Downloads
 363.85 KB
 25-06-2019

Paper from India listing RUE models and how they can be annually updated.

2013 - India - Road User Cost Calibration
 391 Downloads
 647.68 KB
 25-06-2019

Engineering economic analysis applies economic concepts and methods to engineering problems to support decisions on a best course of action. Economic analysis provides a way of comparing the economic gains expected from an investment with the cost of that investment; providing an objective understanding of value to be expected for cost incurred. The Highway Development and Management Model (HDM-4) system is seen as the international standard decision support tool for road management. This article focuses on the Road User Cost Modelling in HDM-4 and validation of the model using Road User Costs Knowledge System (RUCKS).

Presentation summarizing current situation with regard to predicting vehicle operating costs

NHCRP 720. This report presents models for estimating the effects of pavement condition on vehicle operating costs. These models address fuel consumption, tire wear, and repair and maintenance costs and are presented as computational software on the accompanying CD-ROM

to facilitate use. The material contained in the report should be of immediate interest to state pavement, construction, and maintenance engineers; vehicle fleet managers; and those involved in pavement-investment decision processes and financial aspects of highway transportation.

2011 - World Bank - Quantifying the Effects of Road Dust
 278 Downloads
 1.73 MB
 25-06-2019

Report describing the effects of vehicle-generated dust.

2006 - HDM-4 VOC Software
 891 Downloads
 455.87 KB
 25-06-2019

Excel workbook for calculating the HDM-4 vehicle operating costs. Also includes a worksheet with values for HDM-4 user parameters applied in different countries.

2005 - Mexico - Environmental Modelling Assessment
 1594 Downloads
 458.62 KB
 25-06-2019

[In Spanish] This paper aims to analyze the structure of the sub model Social and Environmental Effects (SEE), included in the version 1.3 of the Highway Development and Management System (HDM-4). Several studies have been carried out describing other sub models within the HDM-4 and regional experiences using this tool to manage road networks as well. Recently the Mexican Institute for Transportation (IMT) published a study concerning sensibility analysis of asphalt pavement deterioration model for Mexican conditions. However, this is the first attempt to analyse the potential use of the SEE in Mexico. Even though the SEE includes the analysis of the energy balance and the vehicle emissions, only the latter will be considered in this paper due to the lack of information concerning energy expenditures for relevant activities in Mexico. In spite of the fact that the model doesn?t provide accurate results because of the use of aggregated data and several simplifications in the model when representing the emission formation processes, it is concluded that the potential in the use of the SEE as an integral part of the HDM-4 is large, even more when the mechanisms and tools to calculate emissions from road transport are either too expensive or too complex to implement. It is also desirable to conduct other studies in order to calibrate the model, activity which requires a concerting effort from society, government and researchers due to the costs involved. Nevertheless, the benefits obtained could match or even surpass the costs, especially if externalities are taken into account.

2005 - Analysis of Environmental Modelling for Mexico
 1116 Downloads
 458.62 KB
 25-06-2019

[In Spanish] This paper aims to analyze the structure of the sub model Social and Environmental Effects (SEE), included in the version 1.3 of the Highway Development and Management System (HDM-4). Several studies have been carried out describing other sub models within the HDM-4 and regional experiences using this tool to manage road networks as well. Recently the Mexican Institute for Transportation (IMT) published a study concerning sensibility analysis of asphalt pavement deterioration model for Mexican conditions. However, this is the first attempt to analyse the potential use of the SEE in Mexico. Even though the SEE includes the analysis of the energy balance and the vehicle emissions, only the latter will be considered in this paper due to the lack of information concerning energy expenditures for relevant activities in Mexico. In spite of the fact that the model doesn?t provide accurate results because of the use of aggregated data and several simplifications in the model when representing the emission formation processes, it is concluded that the potential in the use of the SEE as an integral part of the HDM-4 is large, even more when the mechanisms and tools to calculate emissions from road transport are either too expensive or too complex to implement. It is also desirable to conduct other studies in order to calibrate the model, activity which requires a concerting effort from society, government and researchers due to the costs involved. Nevertheless, the benefits obtained could match or even surpass the costs, especially if externalities are taken into account.

PhD dissertation which provides background and enhancements to the HDM fuel and emissions modelling
Comprehensive book on RUE modelling

2003 - Modelling Congestion: Refinement of the HDM-4 Model
 1191 Downloads
 272.6 KB
 25-06-2019

Paper summarising refinements and improvements to HDM-4 congestion modelling

2003 - Japan - Preliminary Calibration of HDM-4 RUE
 1110 Downloads
 213.06 KB
 25-06-2019

Paper presented to PIARC on Japanese RUE calibration

2003 - HDM Road User Effects Software - Users Guide
 872 Downloads
 1.68 MB
 25-06-2019

HDM-RUE was developed to predict vehicle operating costs for economic analysis. It prepares tables of vehicle operating costs and contains many features not available in the HDM-4 software. The program was originally developed during the writing of the book 'Modelling Road User and Environmental Effects in HDM-4' but is now marketed commercially by HIMS Ltd. who purchased the IP.

2003 - HDM Road User Effects Software - Software
 954 Downloads
 13.57 MB
 25-06-2019

HDM-RUE was developed to predict vehicle operating costs for economic analysis. It prepares tables of vehicle operating costs and contains many features not available in the HDM-4 software. The program was originally developed during the writing of the book 'Modelling Road User and Environmental Effects in HDM-4' but is now marketed commercially by HIMS Ltd. who purchased the IP.

2003 - HDM Road User Effects Software - Brochure
 943 Downloads
 60.55 KB
 25-06-2019

HDM-RUE was developed to predict vehicle operating costs for economic analysis. It prepares tables of vehicle operating costs and contains many features not available in the HDM-4 software. The program was originally developed during the writing of the book 'Modelling Road User and Environmental Effects in HDM-4' but is now marketed commercially by HIMS Ltd. who purchased the IP.

The NZVOC Model is used by Transfund New Zealand to prepare tables of vehicle operating costs for their Project Evaluation Manual. Two projects were conducted to update the costs and develop a new version of the NZVOC Model, one in 1999 and a second in 2001-2003. The NZVOC model contains enhanced VOC relationships and formed the basis for the HDM-4 RUE model.

The NZVOC Model is used by Transfund New Zealand to prepare tables of vehicle operating costs for their Project Evaluation Manual. Two projects were conducted to update the costs and develop a new version of the NZVOC Model, one in 1999 and a second in 2001-2003. The NZVOC model contains enhanced VOC relationships and formed the basis for the HDM-4 RUE model.
The NZVOC Model is used by Transfund New Zealand to prepare tables of vehicle operating costs for their Project Evaluation Manual. Two projects were conducted to update the costs and develop a new version of the NZVOC Model, one in 1999 and a second in 2001-2003. The NZVOC model contains enhanced VOC relationships and formed the basis for the HDM-4 RUE model.
The NZVOC Model is used by Transfund New Zealand to prepare tables of vehicle operating costs for their Project Evaluation Manual. Two projects were conducted to update the costs and develop a new version of the NZVOC Model, one in 1999 and a second in 2001-2003. The NZVOC model contains enhanced VOC relationships and formed the basis for the HDM-4 RUE model.

1999 - New Zealand - VOC for the Project Evaluation Manual
 800 Downloads
 223.42 KB
 25-06-2019

Report describing calibration and application of RUE models for New Zealand
Report reviewing VOC modelling against on-ground research

1999 - New Zealand - Preparation of VOC Tables
 751 Downloads
 92 KB
 25-06-2019

Report describing how standard VOC tables were prepared for the Transfund Project Evaluation Manual

1999 - HDM Tools Software - Disk 4
 581 Downloads
 1.02 MB
 25-06-2019

Suite of applications by I. Greenwood of Opus International Consultants for calibrating and applying HDM, or other economic appraisal models. Includes the ability to predict the effects of congestion on fuel and tyres, work zone modelling, as well as calibrating specific modelling parameters.

1999 - HDM Tools Software - Disk 3
 544 Downloads
 1.35 MB
 25-06-2019

Suite of applications by I. Greenwood of Opus International Consultants for calibrating and applying HDM, or other economic appraisal models. Includes the ability to predict the effects of congestion on fuel and tyres, work zone modelling, as well as calibrating specific modelling parameters.

1999 - HDM Tools Software - Disk 2
 546 Downloads
 1.35 MB
 25-06-2019

Suite of applications by I. Greenwood of Opus International Consultants for calibrating and applying HDM, or other economic appraisal models. Includes the ability to predict the effects of congestion on fuel and tyres, work zone modelling, as well as calibrating specific modelling parameters.

1999 - HDM Tools Software - Disk 1
 574 Downloads
 1.29 MB
 25-06-2019

Suite of applications by I. Greenwood of Opus International Consultants for calibrating and applying HDM, or other economic appraisal models. Includes the ability to predict the effects of congestion on fuel and tyres, work zone modelling, as well as calibrating specific modelling parameters.

1999 - Australia - Testing HDM-4 RUE Model for Australia
 1004 Downloads
 1.05 MB
 25-06-2019

ARRB testing of HDM-4's RUE modelling.

1999 - Australia - HDM-4 RUE Model Reasonableness Review
 1156 Downloads
 1.08 MB
 25-06-2019

ARRB testing of HDM-4's RUE modelling.

1998 - India - Calibration of HDM-4 Road User Effects Model
 928 Downloads
 603.97 KB
 25-06-2019

HDM-4 RUE Model calibration done as part of the Gujarat State Highway Project

1998 - Comparison of HDM-III and HDM-4 RUE Modelling
 1396 Downloads
 60.87 KB
 25-06-2019

Article highlighting difference between the two sets of VOC models

1998 - Australia - HDM-4 Structured Testing Plan
 1238 Downloads
 923.69 KB
 25-06-2019

ARRB plan for how to test HDM-4 for its introduction to Australia
HDM-4 RUE Model calibration done as part of the Thailand Central Database Project

1997 - Emissions Modelling in HDM-4
 1034 Downloads
 38.42 KB
 25-06-2019

Memo on issues with HDM emissions modelling

1997 - Emissions Modelling Framework for HDM-4
 1254 Downloads
 125.55 KB
 25-06-2019

Report on framework for emissions modelling

1997 - Australia - HDM-4 RUE Modelling
 1014 Downloads
 1.67 MB
 25-06-2019

ARRB testing of HDM-4's RUE modelling.

1996 - Workshop on Road User Effects
 959 Downloads
 371.83 KB
 25-06-2019

Briefing paper describing revised RUE model

1996 - Thailand - Thailand Road User Effects Model
 1088 Downloads
 541.95 KB
 25-06-2019

Predicting road user costs for Thailand

1995 - TRL Workshop on Road User Effects
 998 Downloads
 370.67 KB
 25-06-2019

Briefing paper describing RUE model

1995 - Sweden - Road User Effects
 1086 Downloads
 173.13 KB
 25-06-2019

Paper summarizing road user effect modelling.

1995 - Review of Experience Using HDM-III VOC Model
 756 Downloads
 1.12 MB
 25-06-2019

A review of how HDM-III was used in studies in different countries
Original report describing HDM-4 RUE models. Much of the work was subsequently updated but still provides good background information

1995 - International - Review of Experience With HDM-III
 913 Downloads
 1.12 MB
 25-06-2019

A review of how HDM-III was used in studies in different countries.

1995 - Implementation of TRL RUE Workshop Recommendations
 808 Downloads
 194.71 KB
 25-06-2019

How the recommendations from the workshop were implemented

1994 - Proceedings of International Workshop on HDM-4
 2003 Downloads
 3.48 MB
 25-06-2019

Papers presented at workshop

1994 - India - HDM VOC and PDWE Calibration
 971 Downloads
 166.6 KB
 25-06-2019

A report on establishing VOC and pavement deterioration relationships for India. Contains a detailed review of the India VOC and PDWE research and how this work was used to establish models for use in the dTIMS PMS application.

1993 - HDM-III VOC Model Software
 915 Downloads
 3.16 MB
 04-11-2007

The World Bank's Vehicle Operating Costs Model (HDM-VOC) is a stand alone program that estimates vehicle operating costs, using the HDM-III relationships, for ten vehicle types as a function of the vehicle characteristics, vehicle utilization, vehicle unit costs, and the road characteristics. The HDM-VOC software is available for downloading at this site, together with Technical Paper 234 'Estimating Vehicle Operating Costs' (PDF 3,336 KB) by Rodrigo S. Archondo-Callao and Asif Faiz..

1991 - Nepal - HDM VOC and PDWE Calibration
 938 Downloads
 183.65 KB
 25-06-2019

Calibration and application of HDM-III for a feasibility study in Nepal.

1991 - Myanmar - Calibration and Application of HDM-III
 905 Downloads
 100.79 KB
 25-06-2019

How HDM-III was modified and calibrated to Myanmar for the Comprehensive Transport Study.

1987 - World Bank - HDM-III: Vehicle Operating Cost Models
 1157 Downloads
 19.51 MB
 25-06-2019

HDM-III reference manual Volume 3

1984 - NZ - Roughness and Vehicle Operating Costs
 28 Downloads
 3.41 MB
 24-07-2019

Early paper on the impact of roughness on vehicle operating costs.

1968 - UK - Road Planning in Developing Countries
 970 Downloads
 738.69 KB
 25-06-2019

One of the very early papers putting forward the integrated framework of considering road user costs in the planning of road investments.

1966 - World Bank - Quantification of Road User Savings
 1592 Downloads
 3.05 MB
 25-06-2019

Written by Jan de Weille, this is the foundational report for the World Bank\'s future efforts to develop HDM and other management systems. It describes the basis for quantifying road user costs as well as the early research that was available.