General reports on data collection.

An interesting study which develops a set of relationships between subjective pavement Surface Inspection Rating (SIR) and automated pavement distresses, with an investigation of interactions between pavement distresses. The pavement condition parameters/distresses include cracking, rutting, texture loss and roughness. In addition, the influences of pavement operating conditions (such as age and heavy vehicle traffic volume) on the measured strength of relationships between subjective rating and objective pavement distresses, are studied.

2017 - NZ - Bridge Inspections
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This policy document sets out the requirements for the inspection of bridges and other significant highway structures on the state highway network including the structural aspects of tunnels. 

2014 - Finland - RoadScanner Data Collection Technology
 14.72 MB

Presentation from RoadScanners showing developments in road data collection.

An effective pavement management system depends on reliable, accurate, and complete information. Having quality pavement management data is directly linked to the ability of the pavement management system to contribute to the development of reasonable and reliable recommendations and decisions regarding an agency's pavement network. Pavement condition data are one of the key components of a pavement management system. Pavement condition data are used to model pavement performance, to trigger various actions ranging from maintenance to rehabilitation to reconstruction, to evaluate program effectiveness, and to satisfy many other purposes. While there are many different methodologies used for assessing pavement condition, ranging from manual surveys to fully automated procedures, the need for quality data remains the same.

Agencies take a number of steps to ensure and verify data quality, including calibration of the data collection equipment or the inspection teams, incorporating quality control sections that are reinspected to assess repeatability, and verifying reasonableness and completeness of the pavement condition survey. The ability to evaluate and determine the quality of pavement condition data is essential for establishing the accuracy and reliability of analyses made using pavement condition

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the development of a Practical Guide on Quality Management Procedures for network-level pavement condition data. The Practical Guide provides information related to the development and implementation of a QM program, incorporating proven QM practices, and showcasing examples or case studies using pavement condition data from a variety of state DOTs.

2013 - Quality Control of Road Survey Data
 2.59 MB

Presentation to 2013 Transportation Research Board Conference workshop on road data quality assurance.

2013 - NZ - Improvement of Visual Condition Data
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The objective of this research, which was carried out between 2010 and 2012, was to investigate the effectiveness of the current road condition rating system with a view to improving the accuracy and confidence in the data collected. This in turn will build confidence in key network performance indicators.

The use of visual road condition rating data in New Zealand has evolved from its original purpose of identifying carriageway sections on a network level for treatment and from being employed in the development of a forward works programme. Visual rating data is now used as an input into a series of performance measures and other pavement/surfacing performance modelling. This research project looked at the how the visual rating process is currently undertaken and whether this is appropriate for its current and future uses. With the move towards using the data to compare road controlling authority networks, confidence and consistency in the data is paramount.

The research recommends improvements to data collection methodology, rater training, quality auditing, survey stratification and sampling methodology and procurement.

Safety is the top priority at an airfield: it is the goal of any airport to provide safe, reliable service for all users. Foreign Object Debris (FOD) on the airfield poses a threat to aircraft and personnel. Technology has advanced to develop radar-based and electro-optical FOD detection systems which alert an operator when FOD is present.


Airfield pavement needs to be closely monitored for FOD generation as well. As pavement deteriorates, its potential to create FOD increases. The relationship between airfield pavement management and FOD detection systems has not been explored in detail, but the benefits of using a detection system to monitor pavement condition are numerous. Pavement Condition Index surveys could be safer and faster, with distress data archived for future use and comparison. This study explores the possibility of using an electro-optical sensor for airfield pavement management applications.

2011 - USA - Field Evaluation of Rutting Equipment
 17.22 MB

The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has developed a state-of-the-art 3D system for rut measurements. This system will allow more accurate assessment of road performance at both the network and project levels and potentially eliminate the need for manual visual assessments. Furthermore, the improved accuracy, which can be achieved while traveling at highway speeds, will eliminate any subjective elements and lead to more consistent and reliable data. The improved accuracy of the system will significantly impact the TxDOT Pavement Management Information System (PMIS). PMIS is used to monitor statewide pavement condition and to evaluate the effectiveness of pavement maintenance and rehabilitation treatments. PMIS is also used to report progress towards the annual statewide pavement condition goal.

To ensure the rational adoption of the new systems, TxDOT initiated this project to allow an independent assessment of the accuracy and repeatability of the newly developed system. The TxDOT system was compared to other, similar systems from a variety of different vendors to identify the most suitable system for implementation. The project consists of two phases. Phase I evaluated the rut measurements and Phase II will evaluate automated distress data measurements, including longitudinal, transverse, and alligator cracking; failures; spalled cracks; and punchouts. This report summarizes the Phase I tasks, data, analysis, main findings,
and recommendations.

2011 - Pacific - Otta Seal Monitoring Guide
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Guide prepared to monitor the performance of Otta Seals during pilot testing in the South Pacific.

2009 - NZ - Comparison of LTPP and High Speed Data
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This research is to investigate the correlation of LTPP calibration data and NZTA High Speed Profile network survey data (through benchmark data). The objectives of the study are to:

• establish a process to link and report LTPP calibration data and benchmark data comparisons
• find out whether it is possible to compare LTPP calibration and benchmark data in a meaningful manner
• develop a framework for automatic tools for linking and reporting LTPP and high speed data.

The report found high correlations for roughness, medium for rutting and moderate for texture measurements. Very useful, particularly with regard to calibration and validation of profilometer measurements.

2007 - Vietnam - Pavement and Surface Monitoring Guide
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Report on pavement performance monitoring.

2007 - India - Social Audit A Peoples Manual
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This manual is designed to help officials and representatives of people’s organisations and movements, who want to facilitate the process of social audit. The manual describes the characteristics of a social audit and the method of conducting a social audit, both for specific schemes and for policies and programmes.

2007 - Data Collection Technologies for Road Management
 2.83 MB

Report prepared for the World Bank describing road, bridge and traffic data collection technologies. Also covers principles of data collection. The associated web site for obtaining further data is
Prepared for the World Bank's EAP Innovation Fund, this report describes how Goolge Earth can be used for project preparation and supervision. It covers (i) data collection options, and (ii) the Google Earth application. With regard to data collection, it covers a range of technologies from PDAs through to GPS cameras. Since this report was written Google Picassa software has been released which is the easiest way to create a Google Earth file from georeferenced digital photos.

Different types of data are required for managing the road infrastructure. Inventory data describe the physical elements of a road system. Condition data describe the condition of elements that can be expected to change over time. There are a wide range of technologies available to the road manager for measuring attributes of the road network. The challenge is to select the appropriate equipment, given local conditions and the way in which the data are expected to be used. The purpose of this note is to give a general view of the currently available survey technologies applied to pavements, bridges and traffic. This includes an assessment of the applicability of these technologies in developing countries. The goal is to assist managers in establishing an appropriate and sustainable e data collection program and procuring the appropriate equipment to collect the data. This note is a summary of the report 'Data Collection Technologies for Road Management'. The full report is available for download from and from The note opens with a discussion of data collection requirements. This is then followed by separate discussions on pavements, bridges and traffic survey technologies. A cost/performance analysis between available equipment is presented in each section. Finally, recommendations for data collection are presented as a guidance to managers in developing countries. The report and note were produced by the World Bank East-Asia Transport Unit, assisted by independent consultants and with the financial assistance of a grant from TRISP, a partnership between the UK Department for International Development and the World Bank, for learning and sharing of knowledge in the fields of transport and rural infrastructure services.

2006 - World Bank - Data Collection Technologies Road Note
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Technical note giving a general view of the currently available survey technologies applied to pavements, bridges and traffic. This includes an assessment of the applicability of these technologies in developing countries. Summary of the report Data Collection Technologies for Road Management.

2006 - NZ - Harmonizing Rut Depth Measurements
 1.09 MB

Report on the second phase of a study to look at technques for harmonizing measurements from different rut depth measuring devices.

2006 - NZ - Harmonization of Rut Depth Measurements
 1.09 MB

Report describing how to harmonize measurements from different types of rut depth profilometers. Addresses range of issues including systematic bias. Analysis software is available for download from the software category.

2006 - Data Collection Technologies for Road Management
 239.59 KB

Technical note is to give a general view of the currently available survey technologies applied to pavements, bridges and traffic. This includes an assessment of the applicability of these technologies in developing countries. Summary of the report Data Collection Technologies for Road Management.

This manual provides specific information for the inspection of both highway and rail transit tunnels.

Information on GPR Equipment and Service Providers

2005 - New Zealand - Measuring New Zealand's LTPP Data.
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Paper describing data collection procedures for NZ's LTPP sites.
Paper by C. Koniditsiotis. The objective of the research program was to investigate the relationship between pavement structural capacity and transverse profile shape and where suitable develop structural capacity prediction models.

2004 - USA - Automated Distress Data Collection Workshop
 24.54 MB

Powerpoint presentations given at 2004 TRB Conference workshop. Sponsored by TRB Committee A2B06 'Pavement Monitoring, Evaluation and Data Storage'. The presentations are mainly focused on automated data collection using video and other image processing technology. Covers the current state-of-the art, technical issues, and analytical methods

2003 - USA - High Speed Texture Measurement of Pavements
 1.01 MB

Final Report. This study was conducted to validate high-speed texture measuring equipment for use in highway applications. The evaluation included two high-speed systems and a new static referencing device. Tests were conducted on 22 runway and taxiway test sections from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Wallops Flight Facility and 7 surfaces from Virginia’s Smart Road.

2003 - New Zealand - Standardizing Rut Depth Measurements
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Article from Transearch on how rut depth measurements from different instruments were harmonised
Paper describing a cost effective road surveying system developed at the National Technical University of Athens and has been used up to now to survey about 1.300 km long segments of the national road network of Greece, of which 500 km have been already assessed and concrete measures have been proposed for enhancing both the operability and safety of the specific road length.

2002 - Samoa - Road and Traffic Data Collection
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Methodology for collecting road and traffic data in Samoa

2002 - Samoa - Data Collection Results
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The results of Samoa GPS, roughness, condition and traffic survyes

2002 - NZ - Evaluation of Bicycle Counting Technologies
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Report on research and evaluation of traffic counting equipment for counting bicycles.

2002 - Harmonising Automated Rut Depth Measurements
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How data from profilometers with different numbers of sensors can be harmonised. Provides a theoretical analysis of the systematic bias that arises with different profilometers and then uses software to predict the implications of different sensor configurations on systematic bias and other errors.

The phase 2 report which built on the original work can be found here.  The software used for the analysis is also available for download.

2001 - USA -Adequacy of Rut Bar Data Collection
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LTPP Technical Brief on the use of rut bars, monitoring pavement rutting, configuration and calculations and analysis of rut bar data etc

2000 - Evaluating the Quality of Road Survey Data
 1.24 MB

Investigation of the viability of using statistical techniques to assess road data quality
Report on comparison tests perfored by Danish Road Directorate. These tests and report form the basis for the approval of the ROAR as the new friction testing device to be used in Denmark.

1994 - India - Guide to Processing ARAN Data
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Guide for the 4States Pavement Management Project on how the ARAN data were processed
By W.D.O. Paterson and T. Scullion. An excellent report on data collection and information systems for road management. Introduces the IQL concept which is essential for effectively targeting data collection efforts.