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Road User Effects

Reports addressing road user effects (i.e. vehicle operating costs and the environment) and their modelling.


Emissions and Greenhouse Gases.


Fuel consumption.


Maintenance and repairs.


General reports on road user effects.

Non-Motorized Traffic

Non-motorized traffic such as pedestrians and cyclists.

Rolling Resistance

Rolling resistance and forces opposing motion.


Road and traffic safety.


Traffic speeds.


Heavy vehicle trailers.


Tyre consumption.

Work Zones

The effects of work zones on road users.

This document provides a recommended approach for calculating road vehicle operating costs (VOC) for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of NSW Transport cluster projects. It expands on the guidance provided in the Transport for NSW CostBenefit Analysis Guide (Guide) and the Transport for NSW Economic Parameter Values (EPV).

2021 - USA - Total Cost of Vehicle Ownership
 6.94 MB

Detailed analysis of the total cost of ownership (TCO) consisting of all costs related to both purchasing and operating the vehicle. This TCO analysis builds on previous work to provide a comprehensive perspective of all relevant vehicle costs of ownership. In this report, we present what we believe to be the most comprehensive explicit financial analysis of the costs that will be incurred by a vehicle owner. This study considers vehicle cost and depreciation, financing, fuel costs, insurance costs, maintenance and repair costs, taxes and fees, and other operational costs to formulate a holistic total cost of ownership and operation of multiple different vehicles. For each of these cost parameters that together constitute a comprehensive TCO, extensive literature review and data analysis were performed to find representative values in order to build a holistic TCO for vehicles of all size classes. The light- and heavy-duty vehicles selected for analysis in this report are representative of those that are on the road today and expected to be available in the future. Table ES-1 summarizes the main parameters in this study, including the cost components which comprise TCO, the sizes and vocations of vehicles which are analyzed, the powertrains of these vehicles, and the model year for analysis of both current and future vehicles.

1994 - World Bank - Estimating Vehicle Operating Costs
 3.26 MB

Report describing the HDM-III vehicle operating costs model developed by the World Bank.

1986 - NZ - Vehicle Operating Costs in New Zealand
 2.5 MB

Short paper summarizing key findings from Chris Bennett's M.Eng. thesis on predicing vehicle operating costs.