Road Safety

Road Safety

Reports related to road and traffic safety.

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2018 - Australia - Towards Safe System Infrastructure: A Compendium of Current Knowledge

This report provides a compendium of knowledge on Safe System treatments and identifies real world experience in the practical application of solutions that can mitigate crash severity.

The Safe System is internationally regarded as the best practice approach to road safety. Although Australia and New Zealand have been early adopters of the approach since 2004, there has generally been a lack of clarity amongst practitioners on how best to integrate the approach into their daily activities.

Assessment frameworks and tools are also now emerging that allow the alignment with Safe System be better quantified. A hierarchy of treatments is described that provide practitioners with a basic understanding of the types of practices that should now be applied on a trajectory towards a Safe System. Primary treatments are capable of virtually eliminating death and injury and certain supporting treatments can transform the network a step closer to reducing the overall harm being caused.

2018 - Australia - Best Practice in Road Safety Infrastructure Programs

This report provides best practice recommendations for the development of Road Safety Infrastructure Programs (RSIPs) that align with the safe system approach.

For many years, investment in road safety infrastructure in Australia and New Zealand has taken a bottom-up approach of targeting safety improvements at locations with an established safety problem. While this approach served Australia and New Zealand well in the past, it does not fully embrace the safe system philosophy on which the Australian and New Zealand road safety strategies are based.

The report’s recommendations provide practical information on ways to improve program design, process and implementation. When implemented by road controlling authorities, this best practice approach will effectively contribute towards an enduring and safer transport system with fewer fatalities and serious injuries.

2016 - South Africa - Maintenance Standards for Safe Roads

This thesis discusses road safety, the development of standards, asset management processes and legalities. Critical characteristics of the road are identified and standards proposed. The maintenance of such standards will provide a strong defence against claims of negligence. The thesis further analyses case studies of decided claims and investigated accidents to determine principles and norms that have evolved in law.


The thesis proposes a set of standards, threshold values, inspection cycles, reaction times and decision triggers to inform the maintenance of road infrastructure for safer roads. These standards include threshold values for the dimensions of potholes, edge breaks and drop-off, rutting, skid resistance, the affirmation of sight distances through the control of vegetation and location of trees. It lists trigger values for maintenance actions that must be performed to mitigate hazardous conditions, including drainage, signs and guardrails. The research forms a foundation for industry practice guidelines on maintenance for safer roads in the context of the road authorities’ legal duties towards road safety.

2016 - NZ - Road Safety Crash Rates

This manual presents methods for estimating (police) reported injury crash predictions for various road and site elements in New Zealand.  A full list of road and site types currently covered by this manual are outlined, including the transport modes covered by these models and factors. This is the first version of the manual and there are known gaps in the crash models, rates and crash reduction factors that are currently available for use in New Zealand.  The intention is to address these gaps in future versions of the manual.

2014 - World Bank - Making Roads Safer

A review of the World Bank's efforts with road safety, in particular with regard to the 'Safe Systems' approach. Proposes how to further enhance the road safety agenda.

2014 - Australia - Reducing Speeds on Rural Roads

This compendium presents information on speed as a contributor to rural road crashes. It provides information on treatments that can be used to address speed, either at key locations (curves, intersections or the approach to towns) or for routes in general. The main focus is on road-engineering-based treatments, but information is also provided on other approaches that may be used (e.g. enforcement and in-vehicle devices).

2009 - International - iRAP Road Safety Assessment Methodology

The International Road Assessment Program (iRAP) has developed an approach to inspect and rate high accident risk roads and develop investment plans. This report describes the methodology.

2008 - IRAP - Vaccines for Roads iRAP ia an interntional effort to develop tools to help low and middle income countries find the high social and economic returns possible through the provision of safer roads. The major Road Assessment Programmes in developed countries (AusRAP, EuroRAP and USRAP) worked in partnership with global road safety research organisations and local experts to develop and test these tools.

Safe roads are designed to be self-explaining and forgiving. Self-explaining roads show all road users where they should be and how to use the road safely. Clear road layouts not only explain where road users are expected to be, but they also take into account the road user’s ability to process information and make decisions.

An inexpensive, simple pedestrian refuge island not only shows where to cross but makes safe crossing much easier – the pedestrian has to check only one stream of oncoming traffic at a time. The refuge also calms drivers’ speed and restricts overtaking at the crossing point.

Forgiving roads are designed to protect road users in the event of a crash. The design of the road must recognise that crashes can occur and ensure that fatalities and injuries are minimised by protecting road users from hazards. Engineering features, such as safety barriers can be used to separate fast moving traffic from people and cushion crashes when they happen. Crashes are less likely to occur on self explaining roads and injuries are less severe on forgiving roads.

This report describes the principles behind creating safer roads. For more details visit www.irap.net.
2008 - IRAP - The True Cost of Road Crashes In order to evaluate the benefits of programmes of engineering safety countermeasures through economic appraisal, the iRAP methodology needs to include a way of valuing the cost of a life and a serious injury. Experience in high income countries has shown that empirical estimation of values for the prevention of injury requires considerable care in order to avoid bias, and usually costly survey methods. Since such empirical estimation for every country that iRAP works in would be impractical, the purpose of this paper is to explore whether values sufficiently robust for the purposes of iRAP can be derived by consideration of results from existing studies.

This paper:

• Discusses the background to valuation of safety benefits
• Briefly reviews the main methodologies that are in use
• Presents recommendations for values for use in economic appraisal

Valuation of the prevention of a fatality, often termed the value of statistical life, and valuation of serious injury are discussed.
2008 - IRAP - Road Deaths in Developing Countries: The Challenge of Dysfunctional Roads It is accepted wisdom that the sustainable way to relieve poverty and poor health in developing countries is through stimulating economic growth. However it is also accepted that economic growth in developing countries leads to increased motorisation and increased road deaths. Currently 90% of the world’s 1.2 million road fatalities per annum are in low and middle income countries, and by 2020 the number of road fatalities in these countries is expected to grow by 50%. This is an unacceptable situation by any standards, but the question is can we stop it happening? This paper examines what is known about road deaths in developing countries, shows that road deaths do not rise and fall inevitably with growing income, and examines the contribution that tackling dysfunctional roads can make.
2008 - Finland - Observations on the Use of the Accident Causation Approach in Assessing the Safety Effects of Systems This paper discusses the differences in the estimates as produced by the different approaches and attempts to identify the factors behind these differences. The paper also discusses the need to develop the ex-ante assessment of the safety effectiveness of systems.
2007 - Vitenam - Road Safety Improvement, Phase 2 and Heavy Traffic Management Study The objective of the study was to further enhance road safety activities that were initiated in previous projects and address the issue of vehicle overloading and heavy traffic management.
2007 - NZ - Cost Effectiveness of Delineation Improvements for Safety

The purpose of this research was to develop a cost management tool that would assist road controlling authorities and their consultants to prioritise delineation treatments that have added safety benefits compared with standard road markings.

A spreadsheet-based cost management tool was developed and then applied to a range of typical road marking situations. It would appear that audio tactile road markings provide significant safety benefits that outweigh the treatment costs even at relatively low traffic volumes.

This report recommends that audio tactile profiled road markings be installed on a much more widespread basis where road conditions allow and policy changes should reflect this. Further research should be conducted to determine the appropriateness of their use in situations where little sealed shoulder exists, such as near residential dwellings and where the road is commonly used by cyclists.

2007 - NZ - Accident Benefits of Sealing Unsealed Roads

Research was carried out between 2005 and 2006 to determine if there were benefits or disbenefits associated with sealing unsealed roads, and if so, to determine a procedure for calculating the accident savings (or costs). Road data and seal extension site information were obtained from various district councils in New Zealand and combined with the Ministry of Transport’s accident data to give accident rates before and after sealing.

No statistically significant change in the accident rate was found following the sealing of roads. To determine any regression to the mean effects, a background trend analysis was conducted and found no significant overall change in the accident rate during the period 1990–2005.

The research concludes that there is no statistical benefit or disbenefit associated with sealing unsealed roads and recommends that site specific before and after studies are conducted into the study outliers and a portion of flat South Island sites.

2006 - USA - Transportation Research Board Special Report 287: Improving Road Safety in Developing Countries: Opportunities for US Cooperation and Engagement This document is a summary of the presentations and discussions at a workshop entitled “Improving Road Safety in Developing Countries: Opportunities for U.S. Cooperation and Engagement,” held on January 26–27, 2006, in Washington, D.C., and organized by the Transportation Research Board, the Policy and Global Affairs Division, and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. The workshop brought together administrators and professionals from U.S. government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and academic research institutions to discuss the effects of the worldwide problem of road traffic injuries on U.S. interests, as well as prospects for further U.S.action to address the problem.
2006 - NZ - The Safety Benefits of Brighter Road Markings

Report describing an assessment of the safety benefits from brighter road markings.

2006 - NZ - Safety Benefits of Brighter Road Markings

A ‘before’ and ‘after’ style of analysis was undertaken to identify whether increasing the brightness of existing roadmarkings on unlit rural state highways had resulted in improved safety, measured as the incidence of mid-block injury-causing crashes.

Comparisons were made of average crash rates, crash rates in light conditions to dark conditions, and crashes on curves compared to crashes on straight in light and dark conditions. No evidence of altered rates could be identified.

2006 - ESCAP - Road Safety Experiences in Nepal This paper tries to present the experiences in developing policies and implementing the road safety management in Nepal and recommends for road safety management in Asian Highway.
2005 - USA - Safety Effects of Marked Versus Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations The results of a study that examined the safety of pedestrians at uncontrolled crosswalks and provides recommended guidelines for pedestrian crossings.
2005 - USA - Providing Personalized Traffic Safety Information to the Public: Using Web-Based Geographical Information System Technologies Paper on study that explored and tested the capability of existing web-based geographical information system (Web-GIS) technologies to personalize and disseminate traffic safety information to the public in a cost-effective manner.
2005 - USA - Applications of Geocoded Traffic Crash Records and Crash-Risk Mapping Technology in Roadway Safety Improvement Projects Report on study to explore some of the issues raised in recent roadway safety studies regarding ranking methodologies in light of the recent statistical development in space-time generalized linear mixed models (GLMM).
2005 - USA - AASHTO Strategit Highway Safety Plan This Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) and the tools developed to facilitate its implementation offer state and local transportation and safety agencies a life-saving blueprint ready for application in developing comprehensive highway safety plans.
2005 - UK - Costs-Benefit Analysis of Road Safety Improvements Report on benefits and costs relating to the following initiatives: 1. Improving enforcement with respect to three important contributors to fatalities in road crashes – speeding, drunk driving and non-use of seat belts 2. Improving enforcement of existing European Commission road safety laws relating to commercial road transport
2005 - NZ - Crash Risk Relationships for Improved Safety Management of Roads This paper presents the results of a first attempt to combine detailed information on road geometry (horizontal curvature, gradient and cross-fall), road surface condition (roughness, rut depth, texture depth and skid resistance), carriageway characteristics (region, urban/rural environment, and traffic flow) and crashes.
2005 - Azerbaijan - Road Safety Study

Detailed study undertaken by Finnroad looking at all aspects of road safety in Azerbaijan

2004 - USA - Synthesis of Experience with Road Safety Audits

NCHRP Report 336. This synthesis report provides a review of the state of the practice of road safety audit (RSA) and road safety audit review (RSAR) applications for U.S. states and Canadian provinces. Transportation safety professionals with these agencies and with local and re-gional entities, as well as others in both the public and private sectors, may be interested in this documentation of international, state, and some local agency approaches to the use of these tools in comprehensive safety programs. This synthesis of the Transportation Research Board places emphasis on North American applications. However, this document also dis-cusses international practice as RSAs were first introduced in the United Kingdom more than 20 years ago, and RSAs have been extensively applied in New Zealand and Austra-lia since the 1990s. This document promotes the use of RSAs and RSARs. The increased use of these applications may help reduce roadway crashes and fatalities.

2003 - USA - NCHRP Synthesis 321: Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies: A Synthesis of Highway Practice This synthesis will be of interest to local government agencies as they select tools and develop programs to implement road and street safety improvements. It recognizes the wide variation in the operations and responsibilities of local agencies and acknowledges that the level of expertise in transportation safety analysis also varies greatly. The guiding principle of this synthesis was to examine the tools and procedures that are practical, relatively easy to apply, and can be implemented by agencies with limited financial support and personnel.
2003 - Asian Development Bank - Road Safety Audits for Projects

Tool kit is intended to assist road authorities and their consultants involved in road and highway projects, and has been prepared to provide general advice, a source of reference on the road safety audits (RSAs), and a tool kit of information and checklists to facilitate the application of RSAs on all ADB road and highway projects. Its contents are:

Foreword

  1. Introduction and Background
    1. Introduction
    2. Road Safety is a Multidisciplinary Problem
    3. Important Role of Roads Authorities
    4. Content and Structure of this Tool Kit
  2. Road Safety Audit: An Overview
    1. What Is Road Safety Audit?
    2. Where Is Road Safety Used Around the World?
    3. In Which Situations Can Road Safety Audit Be Used?
    4. What Are the Benefits and Costs of Conducting Road Safety Audits?
    5. How Much Will Road Safety Audit Add to the Cost of the Scheme?
    6. How Can a Road Be Unsafe When High Design Standards Are Used?
    7. The Road Safety Audit Does Not Solve All Problems
  3. Conducting Road Safety Audits
    1. Introduction
    2. Institutional Framework for the Road Safety Audit
    3. Arrangements for Undertaking the Audit
    4. Audit Stages
    5. Audit Process
  4. Opportunities for Intervention during the Project Cycle
    1. Introduction
    2. Opportunities During Sector Reviews
    3. Project Preparation
    4. Project Processing
    5. Project Implementation
    6. Project Completion
    7. Postevaluation
  5. Recommendations and the Way Ahead
    1. Introduction
    2. Summary of Main Findings
    3. The Way Ahead

Appendixes

2003 - ADB - Road Safety Guidelines for Asia and the Pacific

Report on how to address road safety prepared by the Asian Development Bank.

2001 - Sweden - Friction Measurement Methods and the Correlation Between Road Friction and Traffic Safety Report on the project to gather information about the different friction methods in use and about published quantitive relations between road friction and accident risk.
1995 - UK - Costing Road Accidents in Developing Countries Overseas Road Note 10. The objective of this Note is to advise economists, planners and engineers in developing countries on a workable method that can be used to cost road accidents.
 

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