Environment and Social

Environment and Social

Environmental and social reports

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2016 - World - Minimizing Ecological Damage  from Road Improvement in Tropical Forests

A spatial econometric model is used to link road upgrading to forest clearing and biodiversity loss in the moist tropical forests of Bolivia, Cameroon, and Myanmar. Using 250meter cells, the model estimates the relationship between the rate of forest clearing in a cell and its distance to the urban market, with explicit attention given to road quality and simultaneity, terrain elevation and slope, the agricultural opportunity value of the land, and its legal protection status. Forest clearing is found to be most responsive to the distance to the nearest urban market, especially with
secondary roads with lower typical speeds. Using the estimated forest-clearing response elasticities and a composite biodiversity indicator, an index of expected biodiversity loss from upgrading secondary roads to primary status is computed in each cell. The results identify areas in the three countries where high expected biodiversity losses may warrant additional protection as road upgrading continues. In addition, the results provide ecological risk ratings for individual road corridors that can inform environmentally sensitive infrastructure investment programs.

2016 - World - A Guide to Good Practices  for Environmentally Friendly Roads

Excellent guide on how to minimize the negative environmental impacts from road development projects.

2016 - Australia - Greenhouse Gas Indicator for Road Management

Once a road is constructed, it enters into use or operation phase as part of a road network. The road use phase involves management of road maintenance and rehabilitation activities to keep the road functional based on certain approved intervention triggers, maintenance work standards and budget. Road agencies usually have a Pavement Management System (PMS) in place that prioritizes road sections for maintenance and rehabilitation works. This is primarily based on economic indicators.

With the emergence of sustainable development concept to address the climate change phenomena as a principal concern for human sustenance on the earth, consideration to environmental issue like carbon emissions is becoming an internationally agreed requirement. This needs a holistic indicator that can address key road environmental components during the use phase for comparing different maintenance strategies based on Global Warming Potential (GWP).

This paper presents an environmental indicator concept termed as ‘Road Use GHG Factor (RUGF)’, which could be used to calculate life cycle carbon footprint of alternative road maintenance strategies. RUGF provides combined GWP of key use phase environmental components like rolling resistance, albedo and construction materials. The application of RUGF leads to the development of a comprehensive sustainability parameter ‘Road Sustainability Factor (RSF)’ that can accommodate different indicators of sustainability in road project development and management. Incorporation of RSF may help upgrade the PMSs to Sustainable Pavement Management Systems (SPMS).

2015 - World Bank - Environmentally Sustainable Roads

Report from the World Bank on how to construct and maintain roads in the most environmentally sustainable manner.

2015 - World - Transport Policies and Development

This survey reviews the current state of the economic literature, assessing the impact of transport policies on growth, inclusion, and sustainability in a developing country context. The findings are summarized and methodologies are critically
assessed, especially those dealing with endogeneity issues in empirical studies. The specific implementation challenges of transport policies in developing countries are discussed.

2015 - IAIA - Social Assessment Guide

The purpose of the Guidance Note is to provide advice to various stakeholders about what is expected in good practice social impact assessment (SIA) and social impact management processes, especially in relation to project development. Project development refers to dams, mines, oil and gas drilling, factories, ports, airports, pipelines, electricity transmission corridors, roads, railway lines and other infrastructure including large-scale agriculture, forestry and aquaculture projects. This Guidance Note builds on IAIA’s (2003) International Principles for Social Impact Assessment. While the International Principles outline the overarching understandings of the SIA field, including the expected values of the profession, this document seeks to provide advice on good practice in the undertaking and appraisal of SIAs and the adaptive management of projects to address the social issues.

2012 – Wold Bank - The Effect of Transport Policies on Car Use: Theory and Evidence from Latin American Cities

In an effort to reduce air pollution and congestion, Latin American cities have experimented with different policies to persuade drivers to give up their cars in favour of public transport. This paper looks at two of such policies: the driving restriction program introduced in Mexico-City in November of 1989 –Hoy-No-Circula (HNC)– and the public transport reform carried out in Santiago in February of 2007–Transantiago (TS). Based on hourly concentration records of carbon monoxide, which comes primarily from vehicles exhaust, we find that household responses to both HNC and TS have been ultimately unfortunate –more cars on the road and higher pollution levels– but also remarkably similar in how fast households have adjusted their stock of vehicles, within a year. Another empirical finding is how different short- and long-run effects of the policies can be. In fact, we find that a (permanent) driving restriction like HNC can still be effective in the short-run, say, for a month or two. We also document significant heterogeneity of the effects of the policy across the city. For the case of TS we complement these results with additional evidence coming from gasoline sales, sales of used and new cars, traffic flows, and the price of taxi medallions. A theoretical (bundling) model is also developed to explain the empirical results and to compute policy costs.

2011 - ILO - Local investments for climate change adaptation: Green jobs through green works

This guide introduces an approach for infrastructure development and public works in the context of climate change adaptation. It links adaptation with poverty reduction and employment creation. It introduces a local resource-based approach and demonstrates how green jobs can be created through green works.

2007 - Environmental Management Plan Training Manual

All construction activities interact with the environment and generate potential environmental impacts if unmitigated. Thus, it is necessary to proper manage these construction activities as to minimize the potential environmental impacts. An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) has been prepared specifically to the Project. It is a site specific plan that outlines all the envivonmental requirements for the Project, with focus on the construction phase.

To ensure the EMP is a robust one, it is necessary that all parties, including the contractors, supervision staff and implementation agencies, are fully trained such that the EMP is properly implemented. This report, prepared for the World Bank, provides a general outline of the EMP training.

The source file which can be edited can be downloaded here.

2007 - Environmental Management Plan - Generic EMP

All construction activities interact with the environment and generate potential environmental impacts if unmitigated. Thus, it is necessary to proper manage these construction activities as to minimize the potential environmental impacts. An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) has been prepared specifically to the Project. It is a site specific plan that outlines all the envivonmental requirements for the Project, with focus on the construction phase.

The is a generic EMP which was developed for the World Bank in China. It covers the key issues to be addressed on projects. There is an accompanying generic training guide.

2005 - Japan - Seminar on Global Warming and Road Transportation: The Impact of Motorization in Fast-Growing Developing Nations such as China and India Research paper on how much impact motorization in fast growing economies like China and India have on global warming, and the need to address this issue in a global setting.
1997 - World Bank - Handbook for Roads and the Environment

The objective of this handbook is to provide a description of practical methods for designing and executing effective environmental assessments (EAs) to those who are involved in various aspects of road projects, from planning to construction to maintenance. This handbook consists of two parts. Part I provides an overview of the EA process in the context of road planning and construction and also describes the detailed methodological steps of the EA process. Part II provides a more detailed, in-depth discussion of each of the major factors involved in environmental assessment of road projects, including impact mitigation. Each chapter covers one component of the environment and provides a description of possible impacts, the nature and scale of the impacts, and some practical information on common mitigation options. This is followed in each chapter by a checklist which suggests common ways of minimizing the impacts on the component. Each chapter ends with a list of information sources.


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